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refault
[M] shit-stain, w/ diplomatic immunity
 
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But our argument for a link between skin color and liberalism starts with serotonin and its close relationship to both liberalism and melanin. We have previously proposed a monoamine hypothesis of conservatism and liberalism, with the dopaminergic system being more responsible for those attitudes and behaviors associated with conservatism, while the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems are more responsible for liberalism.

Interestingly, the dopaminergic system is expressed predominately in the left hemisphere, while the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems are expressed mainly in the right hemisphere (Davidson, 1998), which is why we sometimes refer to "left-brain" conservatism and "right-brain" liberalism.

The detection of variations in serotonin levels by racial group was by accident, and subsequently introduced as a control for studies on autism (Cuccaro et al., 1993; McBride et al., 1998), suicidal tendencies (Pfeffer et al., 1998), and mood-behavioral disorders (Hughes et al., 1996).

Cuccaro found that black and Hispanic subjects had higher levels of platelet serotonin than whites; McBride found whites with significantly lower levels of platelet serotonin than blacks or Hispanics; Pfeffer found that whites had significantly lower levels of platelet serotonin than blacks or Latinos, and further, blacks had significantly higher levels of whole blood tryptophan (a serotonin precursor) than the other racial groups. Finally, the Hughes study found that blacks had higher levels of platelet serotonin than whites.

Further, racial variations in the frequencies of long and short alleles of the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) were reported by Gelernter et al. (1999) and Williams et al. (2003). The Gelernter study found that the frequency of the long allele was more than 70% in Africa and black Americans, compared to 50% in Europeans, and less than 30% in Japan.

Williams had similar results, with black Americans having 72% long alleles and 28% short alleles, compared to 60% long and 40% short alleles for whites. However, it is interesting to note that in the Williams study, the behavioral impact of allele combinations was not consistent across racial groups.

Serotonin and Liberalism

The evidence for a link between serotonin and liberalism, to date, is indirect, and comes from studies involving serotonin and a variety of behaviors more likely to be found among liberals. The first such behavior is greater tolerance for population density, which had long been inferred by the liberal voting patterns of urban populations. Further, liberals report a much greater tolerance for urban environments than conservatives. The conservative intolerance for high population density is closely associated with the conservative's higher reproductive rates.

The facilitating impact of serotonin on population density has been found in many species, including desert locusts (Anstey, 2009), rhesus macaques (Mehlman, 1995), crickets (Iba, 1995), and implied with humans via MDMA-induced serotonin release (Parrott, 2004).

However, the relationship between serotonin and tolerance for population density is equivocal, and seems to be nonlinear, that is, different levels of crowding induce different responses of the serotonin system, depending on the species. Further, population density response varies from individual to individual, which has been linked to specific allele combinations for the genes responsible for the functioning of the serotonin system.

The evidence for a relationship between population density tolerance and serotonin is particularly strong with humans, and is implied by the success of SSRIs and SNRIs in treating social anxiety disorder. Further, the voluntary crowding behavior (rave parties) associated with MDMA use operate by enhancing serotonin release. It is interesting to note that liberals report less discomfort while standing closer to people than do conservatives.

Another indicator of a serotonin connection to liberalism involves the preference for delayed rewards. Compared to conservatives, liberals are more likely to prefer delayed rewards. The evidence for the serotonergic modulation of this phenomenon is growing (Doya, 2002; Schweighofer, 2008), and provides another indirect link between the serotonin system and liberalism.

One of the most interesting variations between conservatives and liberals is their divergence in gaze direction while walking. The conservatives tend to walk with their gaze fixed parallel to the ground, while the liberals are more likely to look towards the ground. This is interesting in light of the monoamine theory of conservatism and liberalism, as the dopamine system is more orientated towards the upper visual field, while the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems are more oriented towards the lower visual field (Previc, 2006).

However, we must note that not all evidence is consistent with the liberalism-serotonin connection. Liberals are more likely to report social anxiety disorder than conservatives, which has been linked to the hypofunctioning of the serotonin system. However, social anxiety disorder has also been linked to the hypofunctioning of the dopamine system (Schneier, 2000), which is indeed the most "conservative" of the monoamine transmitter systems. Therefore, liberal social anxiety disorder may be more related to a deficit in dopamine tone, rather than serotonergic deficits. Further, the serotonin system is not the only contributor to liberalism, as we believe the noradrenergic system also contributes, but in different ways, to liberalistic attitudes and behaviors.
this is actually very interesting and illuminating
http://neuropolitics.org/defaultjun09.asp
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Old 12-13-2014, 02:36 PM refault is offline  
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