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Krazed1
I fuck niggers because I have low self esteem. Love in central america? Help my cunt
 
Seriously? I don't think anyone cares.
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Old 11-15-2006, 03:33 PM Krazed1 is offline  
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growler
Since I continuously bitch when The Queen posts, she is my new av.
 
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[QUOTE=curdledvomit;19928049]
Quote:
Originally Posted by popnfresh6298 View Post
why the fuck was this unlocked


snipquote]


cause it is informational and if you don't like it don't click.

go be cute in the KC



no go fuck yourself noone gives a rats fuck about this shit
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Old 11-15-2006, 11:30 PM growler is offline  
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#857  

Vienge.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by popnfresh6298 View Post
Quote:
Originally Posted by curdledvomit View Post



no go fuck yourself noone gives a rats fuck about this shit

thanks for the bump
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Old 11-15-2006, 11:30 PM Vienge. is offline  
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growler
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Quote:
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thanks for the bump

anytime champ
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Old 11-15-2006, 11:32 PM growler is offline  
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#859  

Clever Name
gayniggers from outer space
 
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I HOEP THEIR ALL CHINKS
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Old 11-15-2006, 11:33 PM Clever Name is offline  
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#860  

TaK
IN SPAAAAACE
 
posting in this thread in hopes that the world really does end and this thread subsequently get vaulted
Old 11-15-2006, 11:49 PM TaK is offline  
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#861  

flshdncr
brkdncr
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what caused your obsession with influenza?


OK seriously dude, do some research. Influenze has ALWAYS been this critical. The strains that killed thousands during trench warefare in europe is the common flu variant we have today that many people refer to as the 24 hour flu....that's right, plague level influenza of the past is now a days worth of feeling shitty...it's the exact same strain.

Why is this important? Because that's how our ecosystem works. Something comes along to kill off a bunch of us, our species adapts.

bird flu isn't the end of the world. It's in the news because it's something the news companies can use to get people to stay focused in between commercials.

Fuck, start thinking.
Old 11-16-2006, 12:01 AM flshdncr is offline  
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#862  

nvpc2001
 
24 hours?
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Old 11-16-2006, 12:02 AM nvpc2001 is offline  
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growler
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Quote:
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24 hours?

this fucking thread is over a year old if you're not dead yet you won't fucking die from this horseshit
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Old 11-16-2006, 12:04 AM growler is offline  
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#864  

De7|ro|i7
 
Eh, aside from your retarded ass comments, at least this thread provides only content.
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Old 11-16-2006, 06:12 AM De7|ro|i7 is offline  
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#865  

Gruggster
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24 hours?

call jack bauer!
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Old 11-16-2006, 06:15 AM Gruggster is offline  
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this from http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/con...1506mchip.html


'Gene chip' test could speed H5N1 diagnosis

Lisa Schnirring Contributing Writer

Nov 15, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – Scientists say they have developed an inexpensive "gene chip" test that can quickly identify a variety of influenza A viruses, including H5N1, and is less apt to be confused by viral mutations than other tests are.
A research team from the University of Colorado in Boulder and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the test and will report their results in the Dec 15 issue of Analytical Chemistry. The test involves a microarray of genetic material—short sequences of known RNA deposited on a microscope slide.
The team says the test has a key advantage over other available tests in that it is based on a single gene segment that mutates less often than the gene segments used in other tests, meaning it may not have to be updated as frequently as viruses evolve.
Researchers examined the test's ability to identify 24 H5N1 viral isolates and distinguish them from seven non-H5N1 isolates. They found that the "MChip" provided complete information about virus type and subtype for 21 of the 24 H5N1 isolates and gave no false-positives, according to a news release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which funded the research.
The samples were collected between 2003 and 2006 from people and animals in places as widely separated as Vietnam, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Kazakhstan. Six of the human isolates were taken from an Indonesian family in which human-to-human transmission was suspected.
Analysis of 47 samples consisting of influenza A viruses (subtypes H5N1, H3N2, and H1N1) and negative controls revealed the test's clinical sensitivity was 97% and its clinical specificity was 100%, according to the journal article.
Nancy J. Cox, PhD, director of the CDC's influenza division and a coauthor of the report, said in the press release that the new technology, when commercially available, could revolutionize the way laboratories test for influenza.
"The MChip could enable more scientists and physicians, possibly even those working in remote places, to more quickly test for H5N1 and to accurately identify the specific strain and its features," Cox said. "This would greatly increase our ability to learn more about the viruses causing illnesses and take the best steps to respond."
Kathy L. Rowlen, PhD, a University of Colorado professor who led the research team, said in the news release that the MChip is an improvement over its predecessor, the FluChip. The latter uses three influenza genes—hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M)—whereas the MChip uses only the M gene.
Rowlen said HA and NA are difficult to use in flu diagnostic tests because they mutate constantly. "The M segment is much less of a moving target than the HA and NA gene. We believe that a test based on this relatively unchanging gene segment will be more robust," she said.
The MChip displays results as a pattern of fluorescent spots that are automatically interpreted by artificial neural network software designed to eliminate human error. Rowlen said the software component will make the test easier to use in the field.
Rowlen told CIDRAP News that a private company is negotiating with the University of Colorado to manufacture the test for commercial use. She projected that the deal will be completed within the next few months, but she wasn't sure when the test would be submitted for approval to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "It depends on how much time and energy the company can pour into it."
If approved by the FDA, the MChip system could be in great demand in a flu pandemic. Rowlen said foreign supply-chain disruptions in the event of a pandemic would probably not seriously affect MChip production. She said most of the raw materials used to make the test, such as glass slides and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction reagents, are supplied by US companies. The cost of the raw materials is about $10.
Dawson E, Moore CL, Dankbar DM, et al. Identification of A/H5N1 influenza viruses using a single gene diagnostic microarray. Anal Chem 2006 Dec 15, in press
See also:
Nov 13 NIAID press release on MChip
http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsr...2006/mchip.htm
Dawson ED, Moore CL, Smagala JA, et al. MChip: a tool for influenza surveillance. Anal Chem 2006 Nov 15;78(22):7610-5 [Abstract]
Aug 29 CIDRAP News story on FluChip test: "New test may enable more labs to subtype flu viruses"
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Old 11-16-2006, 08:25 AM curdledvomit is offline  
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curdledvomit
 
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This is not good :(

this from http://www.the-scientist.com/news/home/36512/


By Graciela Flores
NEWS
Mutated H5N1 binds to human receptors
Sequence changes could help assess pandemic potential

[Published 16th November 2006 02:01 PM GMT]


Two mutations in the viral hemagglutinin surface protein independently enable H5N1 influenza A virus to bind to human receptors, researchers report in Nature this week. The sequence changes might serve as molecular markers to assess the pandemic potential of H5N1.

"Before avian influenza viruses can replicate efficiently in humans, they must switch recognition from avian to human receptors," senior author Yoshiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison told The Scientist. Avian and human influenza viruses differ in the receptor they bind. Avian hemagglutinin recognizes sugars ending in sialic acid a2,3-galactose, whereas human hemagglutinin recognizes a slightly different ending: sialic acid a 2,6-galactose.

To look for evidence of the switch in recognition, Kawaoka and his colleagues screened avian and human isolates from individuals infected by H5N1 viruses. They analyzed receptor specificity with an assay that measured direct binding to sialylglycopolymers possessing either the 2,3 or the 2,6 sugars.

Whereas viruses from chickens and ducks could only recognize avian receptors, some viruses from human patients could recognize both human and avian cell receptors. "Once we identified the differences between the isolates, we narrowed down the specific changes that make avian H5N1 recognize the 2,6 receptors," Kawaoka explained. The changes were just two mutations, at positions 182 and 192 on the hemagglutinin sequence.

H5N1 has already infected about 250 people, half of whom have died. "That tells you that a lot of its genes are already just fine for virulence once the virus has infected an individual," James Paulson of the Scripps Research Institute, who was not involved in the study, told The Scientist. "That's why the focus has been placed on the initial events of infection, on the ability of hemagglutinin to change specificity from the avian type to the human type."

"This paper is interesting because it provides direct evidence that replication of the H5N1 in humans has already begun to select for a change in receptor specificity," Paulson added. "However, the virus does not yet have the ability to transmit from human to human," he said. "It might require a complete switch, in which it might recognize primarily the 2,6 linkage but not the 2,3 linkage. It might also require other characteristics that are not being studied in this paper at all."

The switch has certainly not yet taken place, and it might never happen, according to James Stevens, also at the Scripps Research Institute. "This paper shows that certain mutations that are naturally appearing in H5N1 show some kind of binding to the human receptor, an increase in human preference. It's interesting in that sense, but it's not a total switch by any stretch of the imagination," Stevens, who did not participate in the research, told The Scientist.

Stevens also noted that the Nature paper does not include a human virus as a positive control, which would show what a human-adapted virus would look like. "This is an obvious drawback. It would probably be quite revealing as to what the natural binding profile should be and how good or poor these mutations are in comparison."

The authors propose that the changes in hemagglutinin sequence might be used to keep track of the virus as additional human infection occurs, as is being done with a mutation in one of the polymerase proteins that enabled avian H5N1 viruses to grow better in mammalian hosts. "That specific marker is now showing that the H5N1 viruses currently circulating among birds in Europe have this specific mutation, even if this virus is only circulating among poultry," Kawaoka explained.

"Now we can say that the viruses that contain [the 182 or 192] mutations in the hemagglutinin protein are one more step closer to replication in humans," Kawaoka said. "How close, we don't know."

Graciela Flores
mail@the-scientist.com

Links within this article:

S. Yamada, et al., "Haemagglutinin mutations responsible for the binding of H5N1 influenza A viruses to human-type receptors," Nature, doi:10.1038/nature05264, November 16, 2006.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture05264.html

C. Holding C, "Flu virulence linked to species jump," The Scientist, February 6, 2004.
http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/21979/

Yoshiro Kawaoka
http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/people/kawaokay

James Paulson
http://www.scripps.edu/mb/paulson/index.htm

K. Schlatter, "H5N1 spreading among humans?," The Scientist, May 20, 2005.
http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/22683

James Stevens
http://www.scripps.edu/mb/wilson/wl_people.htm

C. Holding, "Polymerase may be key to flu's virulence," The Scientist, December 6, 2005.
http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/22852/
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how about a nice hot steaming bowl of STFU!

00110001 00110011 01101011 and damn proud of it!

Squid posted..."curdledvomit is the first +10k guy i actually care about"

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Old 11-16-2006, 10:17 AM curdledvomit is offline  
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dastrike
 
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This is progressing slower than the plot in "Lost" dagnabbit.
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Old 11-16-2006, 10:42 AM dastrike is offline  
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#869  

dirty sanchez
 
more important things came up in our lives, like the elections and such. Bird Flu was for way back when, when the news only talked about the war. They have to distract us somehow.....[/joe pits]
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Old 11-16-2006, 11:06 AM dirty sanchez is offline  
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