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http://www.recombinomics.com/News/10...mbination.html

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Efficient Human to Human Transmission Via H5N1 / H9N2 Recombination

Recombinomics Commentary
October 22, 2005

In the upcoming Virology paper "Evolution of the receptor binding phenotype of influenza A (H5) viruses, Gambaryan et al screen H5 isolates for affinity for human Sia2-6Gal (human-like) receptors. Two isolates, A/Hong Kong/212/2003 and A/Hong Kong/213/2003 were identified. Both isolates had the S227N polymorphism.

These two isolates were from bird flu patients who had returned from a visit to Fujian province, The daughter had died in China with bird flu symptoms. The two isolates were from her brother and father. The father subsequently also died. Thus, the change in receptor binding was associated with a familial cluster that probably involved human to human transmission.

Although the S227N change requires a simple G/A transition, it is rare. This is similar to another polymorphism E627K in PB2. The change is also encoded by a A/G transition, but is strictly conserved. E was exclusively in avian H5N1 isolates and K was found in all human isolates. The conservation could be explained by selection which may have been further restricted by opportunities for recombination. The conservation was broken at Qinghai Lake, where all 16 avian isolates contained the human E627K polymorphism.

Similarly, the lack of S227N in H5N1 may be related to a lack of recombination opportunities. As H5N1 expands its global reach via spread by long range migratory birds, the potential for new recombination targets generating novel genetic changes increases.

A search of the Los Alamos flu database using a 10 nucleotide probe representing the S227N polymorphism identified 42 exact matches. All were in HA and all isolated after 1998 were in the Middle East in chickens, turkeys, geese, and an ostrich.

H9N2 has become endemic in Israel and millions of migratory birds will be passing through the area in the upcoming days. Thus, the potential for dual infections by H9N2 and H5N1 is high. The 10 nucleotides of identity offers an opportunity for homologous recombination that would create the S227N polymorphism and increase the efficiency of H5N1 human transmission.

Efforts to limit the exposure of H9N2 infected birds to H5N1 infected wild birds should be aggressively pursued.

Isolates with donor sequences for S227N acquisition:

AY575869 A/Hong Kong/212/03 2003 H5N1
AB212054 A/Hong Kong/213/03 2003 H5N1
ISDN38262 A/Hong Kong/213/2003 2003 H5N1
AY575870 A/Hong Kong/213/2003 2003 H5N1
AY738456 A/ostrich/Eshkol/1436/03 2003 H9N2
DQ104453 A/turkey/Avigdor/1209/03 2003 H9N2
DQ104454 A/turkey/Avigdor/1215/03 2003 H9N2
DQ104458 A/turkey/Brosh/1276/03 2003 H9N2
DQ104455 A/turkey/Kfar Warburg/1224/03 2003 H9N2
DQ104464 A/chicken/Kfar Monash/636/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104450 A/turkey/Avichail/1075/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104473 A/turkey/Beit HaLevi/1009/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104451 A/turkey/Ein Tzurim/1172/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104462 A/turkey/Givat Haim/622/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104471 A/turkey/Givat Haim/868/02 2002 H9N2
AY548507 A/turkey/Givat Haim/965/02 2002 H9N2
AY738452 A/turkey/Givat Haim/965/02 2002 H9
DQ104459 A/turkey/Kfar Vitkin/615/02 2002 H9
AY548510 A/turkey/Kfar Vitkin/615/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104460 A/turkey/Kfar Vitkin/616/02 2002 H9
AY548511 A/turkey/Kfar Vitkin/616/02 2002 H9N2
AY548512 A/turkey/Mishmar Hasharon/619/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104461 A/turkey/Mishmar Hasharon/619/02 2002 H9
DQ104449 A/turkey/Naharia/1013/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104452 A/turkey/Sapir/1199/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104463 A/turkey/Yedidia/625/02 2002 H9
AY548513 A/turkey/Yedidia/625/02 2002 H9N2
DQ104448 A/turkey/Yedidia/911/02 2002 H9N2
AY548514 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/786/01 2001 H9N2
AY738454 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/786/01 2001 H9
DQ104465 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/809/01 2001 H9
AY548515 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/809/01 2001 H9N2
AY548500 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/811/01 2001 H9N2
DQ104467 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/811/01 2001 H9
AY548501 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/812/01 2001 H9N2
DQ104468 A/chicken/Tel Adashim/812/01 2001 H9
DQ104469 A/goose/Tel Adashim/829/01 2001 H9N2
DQ104470 A/goose/Tel Adashim/830/01 2001 H9N2
AY548499 A/turkey/Givat Haim/810/01 2001 H9N2
DQ104466 A/turkey/Givat Haim/810/01 2001 H9
DQ104472 A/chicken/Maale HaHamisha/90658/00 2000 H9N2
AY738451 A/turkey/Neve Ilan/90710/00 2000 H9
AY548502 A/turkey/Neve Ilan/90710/00 2000 H9N2
AF218108 A/Peking Duck/Malaysia/F20/1/98 1998 H9N2
AF218105 A/Peking Duck/Singapore/F91-5/9/97 1997 H9N2
AY206675 A/quail/Hong Kong/A28945/88 1988 H9N2
Old 10-23-2005, 03:45 PM Renork is offline  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Renork
The HELL you say!
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Old 10-23-2005, 04:40 PM Vienge. is offline  
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this from http://www.cbc.ca/cp/world/051023/w102336.html


Britain says flu strain that killed parrot is deadly H5N1 strain
08:03 PM EDT Oct 23


MICHAEL MCDONOUGH






LONDON (AP) - The British government said Sunday that a strain of bird flu that killed a parrot in quarantine is the deadly H5N1 strain that has plagued Asia and recently spread to Europe.

Scientists determined that the parrot, imported from South America, died of the strain of avian flu that has devastated poultry stocks and killed 61 people in Asia over the past two years, according to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

The virus is spread by migrating wild birds and has recently been found in birds in Russia, Turkey and Romania, spurring efforts around the globe to contain its spread.

While H5N1 is easily transmitted between birds, it is hard for humans to contract. But experts fear it could mutate into a form of flu that is easily transmitted between humans and cause a pandemic that could kill millions.

Debby Reynolds, DEFRA's chief veterinarian, said the parrot was likely infected with the virus while it was housed in the country's quarantine system with birds from Taiwan. Tests conducted on the Taiwanese birds that had died were inconclusive, according to the department.

DEFRA said the virus was most closely matched to a strain found in ducks in China earlier this year but was not very similar to strains discovered in Romania and Turkey.

The genetic makeup of the virus changes slightly as it spreads, and scientists use such tests to track its migration across the world. It was Britain's first confirmed case of bird flu since 1992.
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Old 10-23-2005, 06:05 PM curdledvomit is offline  
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Things like this make me miss the day's when AIDS was the biggest concern. All you had to do was keep your dick in your pants and away from skanky hoes and gay men.
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Old 10-23-2005, 07:03 PM swoop is offline  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by möbiustrip

lol. Who's got the barbecue sauce?
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Old 10-23-2005, 07:04 PM swoop is offline  
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Quote:
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Things like this make me miss the day's when AIDS was the biggest concern. All you had to do was keep your dick in your pants and away from skanky hoes and gay men.

ez 4 u 2 say, lolz

am i rite?
Old 10-23-2005, 08:22 PM Lil*White*Boy is offline  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Renork

This means we are pretty close to fucked, a handful of mutations at the right locations is something this virus is capable of in a VERY short time span. God help us if we don't contain it in time.
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Old 10-23-2005, 09:20 PM TerraNova is offline  
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Poor people breed like rabbits -> poor people can't afford vaccine -> higher % of poor people die than wealthy people -> population control -> nothing to see here, move along

that having been said, I'm going to get vaccinated THRICE just in case
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Old 10-24-2005, 01:31 AM mike27 is offline  
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Doesn't this "IF" it mutates seems like one big "IF" just to get everyone worked up and blame the gov't in time for november election season because they didn't have vaccines......deja vu.
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Old 10-24-2005, 01:36 AM Spiff1333 is offline  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by TerraNova
This means we are pretty close to fucked, a handful of mutations at the right locations is something this virus is capable of in a VERY short time span. God help us if we don't contain it in time.

Yeah, and a different handful results in the flu becoming absolutely harmless.

God, you sensationalist people are fucking stupid.
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Old 10-24-2005, 01:46 AM Janet Reno is offline  
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gg
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Janet Reno
Yeah, and a different handful results in the flu becoming absolutely harmless.

God, you sensationalist people are fucking stupid.
And those benign mutations are less capable of spreading to new hosts.


Its the one lethal mutation that is the problem, not the billions of benign ones.


Go go Darwin
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Old 10-24-2005, 02:00 AM gg is offline  
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Janet Reno
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Quote:
Originally Posted by g
And those benign mutations are less capable of spreading to new hosts.


Its the one lethal mutation that is the problem, not the billions of benign ones.


Go go Darwin
Nice job missing my point. These people are acting as if the chances of it mutating into some supardupar disease are about 90% and completely disregarding any possibility of any mutation with adverse result.

Unless you were being sarcastic, but I think you were just being condescending.
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Old 10-24-2005, 02:03 AM Janet Reno is offline  
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gg
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Janet Reno
Nice job missing my point. These people are acting as if the chances of it mutating into some supardupar disease are about 90% and completely disregarding any possibility of any mutation with adverse result.

Unless you were being sarcastic, but I think you were just being condescending.
The possibility of a mutation leading to a pandemic is real enough to be very, very concerned.
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Old 10-24-2005, 02:06 AM gg is offline  
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Janet Reno
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Quote:
Originally Posted by g
The possibility of a mutation leading to a pandemic is real enough to be very, very concerned.

It doesn't justify this hysteria and ignorance at all.

But you know, i'm sure i'll be begging your forgiveness as the crowd cries before the burning corpses...












WE DIDN'T LISTEN
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Old 10-24-2005, 02:07 AM Janet Reno is offline  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by möbiustrip

what a waste of food
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